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Glossary

In exploring the story of food, you’ll encounter a rich lexicon relevant to food, farming, and sustainability. Terms in italics can be found elsewhere in the glossary.

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Naturalconnotes minimally processed food that does not contain additives or preservatives; however, “natural” does not necessarily mean organic or sustainable, as no legal standards exist
No Hormones Administereda label describing cattle raised without added growth hormones (the USDA does not permit the use of artificial hormones in pigs and poultry, or in organic-certified foods); also known as “No Added Hormones”
Nutrienta substance that provides nutrition and promotes growth
Obesitya medical condition defined by excessive body fat, having an adverse effect on health
Obesity epidemicwidespread obesity; global epidemic status was formally recognized by the World Health Organization in 1997
Organic
describes food produced without synthetic pesticides, artificial fertilizers, hormones, antibiotics, or genetic modification, and often using techniques such as crop rotation, compost, and biological pest control to minimize negative environmental impactRadish
Organic certifiedmeeting the organic standards of the USDA and verified by an independent organization
Overfishingfishing so much of a particular type of fish that the population cannot naturally recover
Overweighthaving more body fat than is optimal for health
Pasture-raiseddescribes cattle raised on forage, such as grass or legumes; also Grass-fed
Pesticide-freedescribes food that has not been sprayed with pesticides, herbicides, or insecticides but may not be organic certified
Pesticidea substance used to kill pests, like insects or rodents
Photosynthesis
the process in plants whereby chlorophyll turns light energy into chemical energy to make foodLettuce
Pollinationthe transfer of pollen from one plant flower to another by organisms (such as bees or hummingbirds) or wind
Polyculturegrowing a variety of crops on the same piece of land to mimic the biodiversity of nature; in contrast to Monoculture
Preservativea natural or synthetic substance added to a food to prevent spoilage
Processed foodfood that has been altered from its natural state by drying, freezing, boiling, canning, or other procedures
RDI (Recommended Daily Intake)the amount of a particular nutrient or calories that most people need to stay healthy per day
Regional food systemthe system of relationships between food producers and customers that supports the health and long-term needs of a particular area
rGBH (bovine growth hormone)a hormone administered to cows to stimulate milk production; also known as recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST)
Runoffexcess water that washes away once soil has been fully irrigated; runoff can include pesticides, petroleum, and other waste that pollutes the surrounding land and water, especially in industrial agriculture

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Sources: CUESA, Merriam-Webster, Nourish Curriculum Guide, Presbyterian Hunger Program, Sustainable Table, The Nibble, Wikipedia

   
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